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Hannon-Fletcher, M. P., Armstrong, N. C., Scott, J. M., Pentieva, K., Bradbury, I., Ward, M., Strain, J. J., Dunn, A. A., Molloy, A. M., Kerr, M. A., and McNulty, H. Determining bioavailability of food folates in a controlled intervention study. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80(4):911-918. View abstract.

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Kopsell, D. A., Lefsrud, M. G., Kopsell, D. E., Wenzel, A. J., Gerweck, C., and Curran-Celentano, J. Spinach cultigen variation for tissue carotenoid concentrations influences human serum carotenoid levels and macular pigment optical density following a 12-week dietary intervention. J.Agric.Food Chem. 10-18-2006;54(21):7998-8005. View abstract.

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Kuriyama, I., Musumi, K., Yonezawa, Y., Takemura, M., Maeda, N., Iijima, H., Hada, T., Yoshida, H., and Mizushina, Y. Inhibitory effects of glycolipids fraction from spinach on mammalian DNA polymerase activity and human cancer cell proliferation. J Nutr.Biochem. 2005;16(10):594-601. View abstract.

Lomnitski, L., Bergman, M., Nyska, A., Ben Shaul, V., and Grossman, S. Composition, efficacy, and safety of spinach extracts. Nutr.Cancer 2003;46(2):222-231. View abstract.

Lucarini, M., Lanzi, S., D’Evoli, L., Aguzzi, A., and Lombardi-Boccia, G. Intake of vitamin A and carotenoids from the Italian population–results of an Italian total diet study. Int.J.Vitam.Nutr.Res. 2006;76(3):103-109. View abstract.

Macone, A., Nardini, M., Antonucci, A., Maggio, A., and Matarese, R. M. Identification of aminoethylcysteine ketimine decarboxylated dimer, a natural antioxidant, in dietary vegetables. J.Agric.Food Chem. 3-27-2002;50(7):2169-2172. View abstract.

Maeda, N., Hada, T., Murakami-Nakai, C., Kuriyama, I., Ichikawa, H., Fukumori, Y., Hiratsuka, J., Yoshida, H., Sakaguchi, K., and Mizushina, Y. Effects of DNA polymerase inhibitory and antitumor activities of lipase-hydrolyzed glycolipid fractions from spinach. J.Nutr.Biochem. 2005;16(2):121-128. View abstract.

Malmauret, L., Parent-Massin, D., Hardy, J. L., and Verger, P. Contaminants in organic and conventional foodstuffs in France. Food Addit.Contam 2002;19(6):524-532. View abstract.

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Matsubara, K., Matsumoto, H., Mizushina, Y., Mori, M., Nakajima, N., Fuchigami, M., Yoshida, H., and Hada, T. Inhibitory effect of glycolipids from spinach on in vitro and ex vivo angiogenesis. Oncol.Rep. 2005;14(1):157-160. View abstract.

McKillop, D. J., McNulty, H., Scott, J. M., McPartlin, J. M., Strain, J. J., Bradbury, I., Girvan, J., Hoey, L., McCreedy, R., Alexander, J., Patterson, B. K., Hannon-Fletcher, M., and Pentieva, K. The rate of intestinal absorption of natural food folates is not related to the extent of folate conjugation. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84(1):167-173. View abstract.

McKillop, D. J., Pentieva, K. D., Scott, J. M., Strain, J. J., McCreedy, R., Alexander, J., Patterson, K., Hughes, J., and McNulty, H. Protocol for the production of concentrated extracts of food folate for use in human bioavailability studies. J.Agric.Food Chem. 7-16-2003;51(15):4382-4388. View abstract.

Mito, N., Takimoto, H., Umegaki, K., Ishiwaki, A., Kusama, K., Fukuoka, H., Ohta, S., Abe, S., Yamawaki, M., Ishida, H., and Yoshiike, N. Folate intakes and folate biomarker profiles of pregnant Japanese women in the first trimester. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 2007;61(1):83-90. View abstract.

Miwa, N., Masuda, T., Terai, K., Kawamura, A., Otani, K., and Miyamoto, H. Bacteriological investigation of an outbreak of Clostridium perfringens food poisoning caused by Japanese food without animal protein. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 8-1-1999;49(1-2):103-106. View abstract.

Moeller, S. M., Jacques, P. F., and Blumberg, J. B. The potential role of dietary xanthophylls in cataract and age-related macular degeneration. J Am.Coll.Nutr 2000;19(5 Suppl):522S-527S. View abstract.

Morrow, S. A., Nabity, S. A., Ehlers, S. J., Cottrell, S. A., Rhee, J. T., Loyal, J. K., and Schulz, E. N. Corrections to the report of San Mateo County enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:h7 outbreak associated with raw spinach. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 2007;55(1):140-141. View abstract.

Muller, H., Bub, A., Watzl, B., and Rechkemmer, G. Plasma concentrations of carotenoids in healthy volunteers after intervention with carotenoid-rich foods. Eur.J.Nutr. 1999;38(1):35-44. View abstract.

Munoz, O., Diaz, O. P., Leyton, I., Nunez, N., Devesa, V., Suner, M. A., Velez, D., and Montoro, R. Vegetables collected in the cultivated Andean area of northern Chile: total and inorganic arsenic contents in raw vegetables. J.Agric.Food Chem. 1-30-2002;50(3):642-647. View abstract.

O’Neill, M. E., Carroll, Y., Corridan, B., Olmedilla, B., Granado, F., Blanco, I., van den, Berg H., Hininger, I., Rousell, A. M., Chopra, M., Southon, S., and Thurnham, D. I. A European carotenoid database to assess carotenoid intakes and its use in a five-country comparative study. Br J Nutr 2001;85(4):499-507. View abstract.

Obana, H., Akutsu, K., Okihashi, M., and Hori, S. Multiresidue analysis of pesticides in vegetables and fruits using two-layered column with graphitized carbon and water absorbent polymer. Analyst 2001;126(9):1529-1534. View abstract.

Ongoing multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 infections associated with consumption of fresh spinach–United States, September 2006. MMWR Morb.Mortal.Wkly.Rep. 9-29-2006;55(38):1045-1046. View abstract.

Ozcakar, L. and Oguz, A. K. Spinach attack: a funny turn in gouty arthritis. Rheumatol.Int. 2003;23(6):327. View abstract.

Pellegrini, N., Serafini, M., Colombi, B., Del Rio, D., Salvatore, S., Bianchi, M., and Brighenti, F. Total antioxidant capacity of plant foods, beverages and oils consumed in Italy assessed by three different in vitro assays. J Nutr 2003;133(9):2812-2819. View abstract.

Pingulkar, K., Kamat, A., and Bongirwar, D. Microbiological quality of fresh leafy vegetables, salad components and ready-to-eat salads: an evidence of inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes in tomatoes. Int.J Food Sci.Nutr. 2001;52(1):15-23. View abstract.

Porrini, M., Riso, P., and Oriani, G. Spinach and tomato consumption increases lymphocyte DNA resistance to oxidative stress but this is not related to cell carotenoid concentrations. Eur.J.Nutr. 2002;41(3):95-100. View abstract.

Prinz-Langenohl, R., Bronstrup, A., Thorand, B., Hages, M., and Pietrzik, K. Availability of food folate in humans. J.Nutr. 1999;129(4):913-916. View abstract.

Rahman, F. A., Allan, D. L., Rosen, C. J., and Sadowsky, M. J. Arsenic availability from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood. J Environ.Qual. 2004;33(1):173-180. View abstract.

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Reddy, M. K., Alexander-Lindo, R. L., and Nair, M. G. Relative inhibition of lipid peroxidation, cyclooxygenase enzymes, and human tumor cell proliferation by natural food colors. J Agric.Food Chem 11-16-2005;53(23):9268-9273. View abstract.

Riso, P., Brusamolino, A., Ciappellano, S., and Porrini, M. Comparison of lutein bioavailability from vegetables and supplement. Int.J.Vitam.Nutr.Res. 2003;73(3):201-205. View abstract.

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Rutzke, C. J., Glahn, R. P., Rutzke, M. A., Welch, R. M., Langhans, R. W., Albright, L. D., Combs, G. F., Jr., and Wheeler, R. M. Bioavailability of iron from spinach using an in vitro/human Caco-2 cell bioassay model. Habitation.(Elmsford.) 2004;10(1):7-14. View abstract.

Boost energy levels by increasing magnesium:

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Savino, F., Maccario, S., Guidi, C., Castagno, E., Farinasso, D., Cresi, F., Silvestro, L., and Mussa, G. C. Methemoglobinemia caused by the ingestion of courgette soup given in order to resolve constipation in two formula-fed infants. Ann.Nutr.Metab 2006;50(4):368-371. View abstract.

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Schuller, A., Morisset, M., Maadi, F., Kolopp Sarda, M. N., Fremont, S., Parisot, L., Kanny, G., and Moneret-Vautrin, D. A. Occupational asthma due to allergy to spinach powder in a pasta factory. Allergy 2005;60(3):408-409. View abstract.

Schurgers, L. J. and Vermeer, C. Determination of phylloquinone and menaquinones in food. Effect of food matrix on circulating vitamin K concentrations. Haemostasis 2000;30(6):298-307. View abstract.

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Tang, G., Qin, J., Dolnikowski, G. G., Russell, R. M., and Grusak, M. A. Spinach or carrots can supply significant amounts of vitamin A as assessed by feeding with intrinsically deuterated vegetables. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2005;82(4):821-828. View abstract.

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The FDA: fresh leafy greens grown in the United States are safe. FDA.Consum. 2006;40(6):11. View abstract.

Tokui, N., Yoshimura, T., Fujino, Y., Mizoue, T., Hoshiyama, Y., Yatsuya, H., Sakata, K., Kondo, T., Kikuchi, S., Toyoshima, H., Hayakawa, N., Kubo, T., and Tamakoshi, A. Dietary habits and stomach cancer risk in the JACC Study. J.Epidemiol. 2005;15 Suppl 2:S98-108. View abstract.

Torres-Sanchez, L., Lopez-Carrillo, L., Lopez-Cervantes, M., Rueda-Neria, C., and Wolff, M. S. Food sources of phytoestrogens and breast cancer risk in Mexican women. Nutr.Cancer 2000;37(2):134-139. View abstract.

Young, Lee N., Jo, C., Hwa, Shin D., Geun, Kim W., and Woo, Byun M. Effect of gamma-irradiation on pathogens inoculated into ready-to-use vegetables. Food Microbiol. 2006;23(7):649-656. View abstract.

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Chasan-Taber L, Willett WC, Seddon JM, et al. A prospective study of carotenoid and vitamin A intakes and risk of cataract extraction in US women. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:509-16. View abstract.

Chung HY, Rasmussen HM, Johnson EJ. Lutein bioavailability is higher from lutein-enriched eggs than from supplements and spinach in men. J Nutr 2004;134:1887-93. View abstract.

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Joseph JA, Shukitt-Hale B, Denisova NA, et al. Long-term dietary strawberry, spinach, or vitamin E supplementation retards the onset of age-related neuronal signal-transduction and cognitive behavioral deficits. J Neurosci 1998;18:8047-55. View abstract.

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Naguib, M., Samarkandimb, A. H., Al-Hattab, Y., Turkistani, A., Delvi, M. B., Riad, W., and Attia, M. Metabolic, hormonal and gastric fluid and pH changes after different preoperative feeding regimens. Can J Anaesth. 2001;48(4):344-350. View abstract.

Nesterenko, V. B., Nesterenko, A. V., Babenko, V. I., Yerkovich, T. V., and Babenko, I. V. Reducing the 137Cs-load in the organism of “Chernobyl” children with apple-pectin. Swiss.Med Wkly. 1-10-2004;134(1-2):24-27. View abstract.

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Splinter, W. M., Stewart, J. A., and Muir, J. G. The effect of preoperative apple juice on gastric contents, thirst, and hunger in children. Can J Anaesth. 1989;36(1):55-58. View abstract.

Takahashi, T., Kamimura, A., Yokoo, Y., Honda, S., and Watanabe, Y. The first clinical trial of topical application of procyanidin B-2 to investigate its potential as a hair growing agent. Phytother.Res 2001;15(4):331-336. View abstract.

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Tanabe, T., Hashimoto, Y., Sugihara, K., Miyata, A., Maeda, A., Ishihara, H., and Matsuki, A. [The effect of preoperative oral fluid intake on the volume and pH of gastric contents in elective surgical patients–a comparison of tea with apple juice]. Masui 1996;45(8):967-970. View abstract.

Tariq, M. and Beg, M. H. A foreign body in the bronchus still presents problems. Int J Clin Pract 1999;53(1):81-82. View abstract.

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Yaneva, M. P., Botushanova, A. D., Grigorov, L. A., Kokov, J. L., Todorova, E. P., and Krachanova, M. G. Evaluation of the immunomodulatory activity of Aronia in combination with apple pectin in patients with breast cancer undergoing postoperative radiation therapy. Folia Med (Plovdiv.) 2002;44(1-2):22-25. View abstract.

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He, H. L., Chen, X. L., Wu, H., Sun, C. Y., Zhang, Y. Z., and Zhou, B. C. High throughput and rapid screening of marine protein hydrolysates enriched in peptides with angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity by capillary electrophoresis. Bioresour.Technol 2007;98(18):3499-3505. View abstract.

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Ivanova, K. G., Stankova, K. G., Nikolov, V. N., Georgieva, R. T., Minkova, K. M., Gigova, L. G., Rupova, I. T., and Boteva, R. N. The biliprotein C-phycocyanin modulates the early radiation response: a pilot study. Mutat.Res. 2010;695(1-2):40-45. View abstract.

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Iwata, K., Inayama, T., and Kato, T. Effects of Spirulina platensis on plasma lipoprotein lipase activity in fructose-induced hyperlipidemic rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol.(Tokyo) 1990;36(2):165-171. View abstract.

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Kato T, Takemoto K, Katayama H, and et al. Effects of spirulina (Spirulina platensis) on dietary hypercholesterolemia in rats. Nippon Eiyo Shokuryo Gakkaishi (J Jpn Soc Nutr Food Sci) 1984;37:323-332.

Kaushal, S., Mathur, S. R., Mallick, S. R., and Ramam, M. Disseminated cutaneous, laryngeal, nasopharyngeal, and recurrent obstructive nasal rhinosporidiosis in an immunocompetent adult: a case report and review of literature. Int.J.Dermatol. 2011;50(3):340-342. View abstract.

Khan, M., Shobha, J. C., Mohan, I. K., Naidu, M. U., Sundaram, C., Singh, S., Kuppusamy, P., and Kutala, V. K. Protective effect of Spirulina against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Phytother Res 2005;19(12):1030-1037. View abstract.

Khan, M., Shobha, J. C., Mohan, I. K., Rao Naidu, M. U., Prayag, A., and Kutala, V. K. Spirulina attenuates cyclosporine-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. J Appl Toxicol 2006;26(5):444-451. View abstract.

Khan, M., Varadharaj, S., Ganesan, L. P., Shobha, J. C., Naidu, M. U., Parinandi, N. L., Tridandapani, S., Kutala, V. K., and Kuppusamy, P. C-phycocyanin protects against ischemia-reperfusion injury of heart through involvement of p38 MAPK and ERK signaling. Am J Physiol Heart Circ.Physiol 2006;290(5):H2136-H2145. View abstract.

Khan, M., Varadharaj, S., Shobha, J. C., Naidu, M. U., Parinandi, N. L., Kutala, V. K., and Kuppusamy, P. C-phycocyanin ameliorates doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult rat cardiomyocytes. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol 2006;47(1):9-20. View abstract.

Konno, T., Umeda, Y., Umeda, M., Kawachi, I., Oyake, M., and Fujita, N. [A case of inflammatory myopathy with widely skin rash following use of supplements containing Spirulina]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2011;51(5):330-333. View abstract.

Kraigher, O., Wohl, Y., Gat, A., and Brenner, S. A mixed immunoblistering disorder exhibiting features of bullous pemphigoid and pemphigus foliaceus associated with Spirulina algae intake. Int.J.Dermatol. 2008;47(1):61-63. View abstract.

Kuhad, A., Tirkey, N., Pilkhwal, S., and Chopra, K. Effect of Spirulina, a blue green algae, on gentamicin-induced oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in rats. Fundam.Clin Pharmacol 2006;20(2):121-128. View abstract.

Kuhad, A., Tirkey, N., Pilkhwal, S., and Chopra, K. Renoprotective effect of Spirulina fusiformis on cisplatin-induced oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in rats. Ren Fail. 2006;28(3):247-254. View abstract.

Li, B., Gao, M. H., Zhang, X. C., and Chu, X. M. Molecular immune mechanism of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis induces apoptosis in HeLa cells in vitro. Biotechnol.Appl Biochem 2006;43(Pt 3):155-164. View abstract.

Loke, M. F., Lui, S. Y., Ng, B. L., Gong, M., and Ho, B. Antiadhesive property of microalgal polysaccharide extract on the binding of Helicobacter pylori to gastric mucin. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2007;50(2):231-238. View abstract.

Madhyastha, H. K., Radha, K. S., Sugiki, M., Omura, S., and Maruyama, M. Purification of c-phycocyanin from Spirulina fusiformis and its effect on the induction of urokinase-type plasminogen activator from calf pulmonary endothelial cells. Phytomedicine 2006;13(8):564-569. View abstract.

Mani UV, Desai S, and Iyer U. Studies on the long-term effect of spirulina supplementation on serum lipid profile and glycated proteins in NIDDM patients. J Nutraceut 2000;2(3):25-32.

Marcel, A. K., Ekali, L. G., Eugene, S., Arnold, O. E., Sandrine, E. D., von der, Weid D., Gbaguidi, E., Ngogang, J., and Mbanya, J. C. The effect of Spirulina platensis versus soybean on insulin resistance in HIV-infected patients: a randomized pilot study. Nutrients. 2011;3(7):712-724. View abstract.

Mazokopakis, E. E., Karefilakis, C. M., Tsartsalis, A. N., Milkas, A. N., and Ganotakis, E. S. Acute rhabdomyolysis caused by Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis). Phytomedicine. 2008;15(6-7):525-527. View abstract.

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Mittalo A, Kumar A, and Rao T. Modulatory influence of Spirulina fusiformas on 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced papillomagenesis in the skin of mice. Pharmaceut Biol 1998;36(5):341-346.

Mohan, I. K., Khan, M., Shobha, J. C., Naidu, M. U., Prayag, A., Kuppusamy, P., and Kutala, V. K. Protection against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by Spirulina in rats. Cancer Chemother.Pharmacol 2006;58(6):802-808. View abstract.

Moulis, G., Batz, A., Durrieu, G., Viard, C., Decramer, S., and Montastruc, J. L. Severe neonatal hypercalcemia related to maternal exposure to nutritional supplement containing Spirulina. Eur.J.Clin.Pharmacol. 2012;68(2):221-222. View abstract.

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Mustafa, N., Periyasamy, P., and Kamaruddin, N. Steven Johnson syndrome in a patient with Cushing’s disease. Med.J.Malaysia 2009;64(3):238-239. View abstract.

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Nielsen, C. H., Balachandran, P., Christensen, O., Pugh, N. D., Tamta, H., Sufka, K. J., Wu, X., Walsted, A., Schjorring-Thyssen, M., Enevold, C., and Pasco, D. S. Enhancement of natural killer cell activity in healthy subjects by Immulina(R), a Spirulina extract enriched for Braun-type lipoproteins. Planta Med. 2010;76(16):1802-1808. View abstract.

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Patel, A., Mishra, S., and Ghosh, P. K. Antioxidant potential of C-phycocyanin isolated from cyanobacterial species Lyngbya, Phormidium and Spirulina spp. Indian J Biochem Biophys 2006;43(1):25-31. View abstract.

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Rasool, M. and Sabina, E. P. Appraisal of immunomodulatory potential of Spirulina fusiformis: an in vivo and in vitro study. J.Nat.Med. 2009;63(2):169-175. View abstract.

Rasool, M., Sabina, E. P., and Lavanya, B. Anti-inflammatory effect of Spirulina fusiformis on adjuvant-induced arthritis in mice. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006;29(12):2483-2487. View abstract.

Rawn, D. F., Niedzwiadek, B., Lau, B. P., and Saker, M. Anatoxin-a and its metabolites in blue-green algae food supplements from Canada and Portugal. J Food Prot. 2007;70(3):776-779. View abstract.

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